Joseph Stalin (Иосиф Виссарионовий Сталин)
Stalin, whose real name is Iosif Vissarionovich, or in Georgian as Iosef Jugashvili. He was born on December 18 (December 6, O.S.) 1878 in the city of Gori, Georgia (Gori, Georgia), in the Tiflis Territory (Tiflis Governoorate), the Russian Empire at that time
Stalin was born in 1878, but the official documents of the Soviet Union after Stalin were in power. Even the encyclopedia would indicate that Stalin was born in 1879, with no exact reason why he did so.
His father was Bezarian (Besarion Jughashvili, c.1850-1909), and her mother JeCatherine Jeladze (Ekaterine Geladze, b.1856). She came from a family of slaves.
Stalin's family was poor, Bezarian was a shoemaker, he was an alcoholic and loved to beat his wife and children. Katherine worked daily mercenaries, Catherine loved her children so much that, as mentioned, she had a desire for Stalin to be a priest.
Stalin was the family's third child, but the first two brothers died from infancy.
In 1883, Katherine had taken Stalin separated from her husband's house to life by living in several places.
At the age of 6, he was hit by a car (Phaeton), causing Stalin's left arm to be unable to fully stretch since, and his left arm looks shorter than his right arm. In addition, the left toe, the second and third fingers are intertwined, caused by rheumatoid arthritis.
In addition, at the age of 5-6 years, Stalin was ill with smallpox, which, after healing well, traces of sores appeared on his face.
In 1885, Stalin tried to take the entrance exam at Gori Orthodox theological school, according to his mother's desire, but because Stalin spoke Russian did not allow him to pass the exam in the first place.
In 1886, Catherine and Stalin came to live at the home of Rev. Christopher Charkviani, whom Catherine was a friend of the pastor's children. She worked as a home servant in return, and Stalin spent her time practicing Russian.
1888 Stalin successfully enrolled the Gori religious school.
In 1894, he graduated from Gori School. After that, he enrolled in Tiflis Theological Seminary, where Stalin was interested in the concept of Marxism.
Stalin was a very good academic in many subjects, including mathematics, Russian and Greek. Stalin was able to read the writing of Plato (manuscript) from the manuscript.
In 1895, Stalin had contact with the Russian Marxist group, which made the underground movement for the revolution, moving in Transcaucasia.
Stalin had later interviewed about why he turned his attention to Marxism was because he disliked the school's jesuit-style strict system, causing protests.
In 1898, Stalin went on to teach the Marxist concept to youth, who were laborers in the construction of railway tracks in the area.
1898 joined the Mesame-Dasi party (“The Third Group), the first Socialist Democratic Party in Georgia. The party's members were Lado Ketskhoveli, a writer who was a friend of Stalin and the first to suggest Stalin to study Marxist Alexander Tzulukise. Tsulukidze) is a journalist who comes from a wealthy family, an old Georgian clan.
In 1899, the Mesame-Dasi Party jointly organized labor stoppage protests in several cities in Georgia. Both Tbilisi, Batumi.
On May 29, Stalin was expelled from Tiflis religious school after he did not take the exam without refusing to explain the reason. However, Stalin received a diploma from the school that he finished fourth grade and could become a teacher in elementary school.
December, Stalin took office at the Tiflis Physical Observatory, where here his friend Lado Ketchoweli was already working.
April 1900, Stalin, along with Ivan Sturia (Ivan Fedorovich Styria, “Vano”) and Zakro (Zakro Chodrishvili), have been vocal in organising protest marches along with hundreds of workers.
People, four to five thousand workers in Tiplis strike a protest that led the Georgia government to suppress and arrest several protesters.
1901 March 21, police raided Coonys studying astronomy Tiflis, who was Stalin's residence and office, but that he managed to escape.
In September, Stalin worked for Nina printing house in Baku, which runs the underground newspaper Brdzola (“Wrestling”), run by Lado Ketchoweli and Leonid Krasin. Stalin also wrote articles in the newspaper Brdzola.
November, Stalin appointed the RSDLP (Russian Social Democratic Labour Party) Tiflis branch. After taking office, Stalin was sent to Batumi to set up the Koba party.
In 1903, when a rift within the party, the RSDLP was the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, Stalin chose to side the Bolsheviks.
December 1904, Stalin held a major labor protest in Baku, marking Labour's first victory in Russia, which ended with an agreement on the welfare and welfare of workers with a group of oilfield owners.
In December 1905, Stalin had the first chance to meet with Vladimir Lenin at the first RSDLP party meeting held in Tampere (Tampere in today's Finland, but at that time was still part of the Russian Empire).
May 1906, Stalin, a party representative from the Georgian branch, attended the RSDLP party general meeting in Moscow.
July 16, Stalin married Catherine Swanidse (Ekaterina Svanidze,” Kato”), whom they had a son together named Yakov (Yakov Dzhugashvili, b.31.03.1907).
1907 May, attended the 5th RSDLP Party Conference, held in London.
June 26, (Tiflis bank robbery), the Bolsheviks rob a bank in Tiflis to support the party movement. The plan was planned by Lenin, Stalin, Grazin and Bolsheviks, which raised over 241,000 rubles and 40 people died.
November 22, Stalin's wife Catherine Rina died of typhus (typhus)
In 1909, Stalin's father died, whose cause of death was unclear. Some of the data said that he died from tuberculosis at the hospital.
February. Lenin fled in Moscow until June.
1910 March, Stalin was arrested. He was taken into custody in Batumin prison for six months before being deported to Solvychegodsk (Solvychegodsk)
While in Solvichegodsk, some historians claim that Stalin had an illegitimate son, Konstantin Kuzakov, in the meantime, but Stalin fled the city before his son was born. Kusakov later became a journalist in the Soviet Union's troop, and he claimed to be Stalin's son. While Kusakov's mother was Maria Kuzakova.
October 29, fled to Moscow again
1911 sneaked back into St. Petersburg using his friend's passport, but it was soon captured by the authorities and deported to Vologda.
In 1912, the RSDLP Central Committee selected Stalin as a member of the Central Party Committee. In this period, he began to use the name “Stalin” instead of himself.
April, Stalin was arrested by police and deported to Siberia. This time in Tomsk, where he met several party members who had already been deported before him, Smirnov, Sverdlov.
In September, Stalin escaped from Tomske and headed to Switzerland to meet Lenin.
1913 March, was arrested once more
In March 1917, after the February Revolution, where the King ended in Razvia, Stalin was acquitted and could return to St. Petersburg.
In the early post-revolution period, Stalin continued to support the Provisional Government until Lenin returned to the April Walk and presented the “April Thesis,” which Lenin demanded to bring down the Provisional Government. Stalin switched to support Lenin.
April 24-29, during the 7th RSDLP party general meeting, Stalin was elected as the party's central commissioner.
July 16-19, July (July Days), the Bolsheviks tried to revolutionize Georgy Lvov's only government, which could incite more than five hundred thousand people, but the debt operation failed.
16 October, Stalin was elected Commissioner for the Bolshevik's Military Revolutionary Committee to take charge of the forces prepared for the revolution. The commission also includes Lenin, Felix Dzerzhinsky, Yakov Sverdlov, Andrei Bubnov, Pavel Lazimir, among others, but two key party members, Kemenev (L. D. Kamenev) and Grigory Sinoviv (Grigory E. Zinoviev), who voted to cull the revolution
October 25 (November 7, N.S.), (October Revolution), Bolsheviks revolutionaries successfully knocked down the transitional government.
1918 married Nadezhda Alliluyeva, with whom they had two children together: Vasily Stalin, b.1921) and Swetlana (Svetalana Alliluyeva, b.1926).
October, was a member of the RSFSR (RSFSR)
1921 was ill with an infectious disease (appendix), making Stalin's admission to the exhausted Vladimir Rozanov (Vladimir Rozanov).
1922 was elected as a member of the Supreme Soviets and Politburo of the Soviet Communist Party, and general secretary of the General Secretariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU, which made him an official leader of the country, but in practice, Secondary to Lenin.
But during this time Lenin fell ill and was close to death. At this time Stalin was in conflict with Trotsky, where Stalin set up a Troika group consisting of Stalin, Grigory Sinoviv and Kemenev.
In 1923, the first week of the year, (Lenin's Testament) Lenin wrote a will, wanting to reduce the intra-party conflict between Trotsky and Stalin, and signaling the party to remove Stalin from office. But Lenin's wife Nadezhda Krupskaya kept the document with him not immediately sent it to the party for hope. Lenin's fared better, but the documents were revealed in limited limits after Stalin's death in 1924, making Stalin nothing.
1924 March 23-31, the 13th Congress of the Community Party was the first party meeting after Lenin's death. This meeting, Stalin was able to dominate the party, and Trotsky had to drop out of positions, but Stalin's Troyka group broke.
1927 November 7, (Trotskyist demonstrations) In celebration of the anniversary of the October Revolution, the Stalinist Resistance, led by Trotsky and Sinoviv, were expelled from the Communist Party.
1928 grain procurement crisis, this year the Soviet Union began to provide grain, wheat, rice, and a variety of vegetable crops. This year, the Soviet Union continued to protest farmers in many areas.
May, Shakhty Trial
Lenin's NEP (New Economy Policy), which began in 1921, expressed failure because unemployment remained high and failed to eliminate inequality, disgruntled workers and students. Stalin took this opportunity to reduce the importance of the NEP, which gave him increased support.
Five Year Plan, Stalin announced a new economic development plan instead of NEP. This 5-year economic development plan will accelerate the construction of 1.5 thousand industrial plants, resulting in a massive domestic population exodus of more than 23 million people during 1928-1940 into major cities to work in factories.
In 1929 Great Turn, Stalin announced a new economic policy according to a 5-year sheet that focused on heavy trade. In agriculture, it forced the abolition of small agricultural plots and switched to the collection of agricultural plots. (dekulakization)), which has a small position called kulak. In addition, nearly two million people are forced to relocate to work in a government-prepared agricultural plot.
This Great Turn policy has caused a stir across the country, with protests all over the country to almost another round of internal war.
1930 March 2, Stalin published a Dizzy with Success article in the Prapda newspaper, resembling an apology or an excuse for the Agro-Transformation Policy, which he said government officials might have been in a rush until it was too fit.
1932 Ryutin affair
(Soviet Famine, 1932-1933) The Soviet Union faces a major food shortage crisis that left millions of people dying because of lack of food, whose death numbers are uncertain, but rattled from four to 10 million.
In 1933, Stalin declared success with the first 5-Year Plan, where he said the plan had achieved its goal within four years and three months, which allowed the USSR to have more than 1,500 factories. Official data from the Central Static Administration (TSSU) said that the Gross Domestic Product was expanding at a rate. An average of 14% during the first five-year plan, which is regarded as the Soviet Economic Miracle, but later estimates expect the actual growth rate to be only 3 -5%.
The Constitution of the Soviet Union has adopted a new constitution of the country, some of which are called the Stalin Constitution, which replaced the 1924 edition. The Stalin Constitution awaits the right to equality of citizens for the first time, giving the right to choose jobs and school selection. Election Voting and Right to Opinion
1937 The Great Purge, Stalin began a major purge of political enemies, estimated that there were about 950,000 - 1.2 million people who were punished for death during 1936 to 1938.
1939 August 23, (Molotov-Ribbbentrop Pact) The Soviet Union and the Germans made an agreement not to face each other. This agreement was made during the Soviet Union fighting Japan, while Germany was allied with Japan.
September 1, the Germans invaded Poland, causing the Second World War.
September 17, the Soviet Union invaded Poland.
November 30, (Winter War, 1939-1940), the Soviet Union invaded Finland.
December, the Soviet Union expelled the League of Nations for invading Finland, a member of the
In 1940, March 12, (Moscow Peace Treaty) The war between the Soviets and Finland ended in a matter of months. Finland lost some territory to the Soviets, while the Soviet Union, despite its large army, lost a lot of troops, which may reveal the weakness of Soviet forces, led the Germans to invade. The Soviet Union at a later time
April, (Katyn massacre) Soviet NKVD unit by Lavrentiy Beria, authorized by Stalin to massacre twenty thousand Polish prisoners of war, although most of them were military officers, which were captured by the Soviets since the invasion of Poland.
The Altic states, including Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, were annexed to the Soviet Union, including Bessarabia in Moldova and Northern Bugovina.
Bukovina in Ukraine and Romania present), it was appended into
1941 June 22, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union.
1943 abolished the Comintern Organization (The Comintern)
November, Tehran conference Stalin participates in a meeting in Tehran, Iran, with President Roosevelt (Franklin D. U.S. Roosevelt and Britain's Prime Minister Winston Chruchill.
February 1945, (Yelta conference)
July, (Potsdam Conference), where U.S. President Harry Truman hinted that Stalin knew that the U.S. was developing nuclear weapons, which actually Stalin knew about it.
August, the Soviets began a nuclear weapons development program. Beria was president, and Igor Kurchatov, a scientist, headed the project.
1946 (famine 1946-1947) The crisis of food shortages once exacerbated in the Soviets, once again from drought problems.
In 1947 (Monetary Reform), a major improvement in the Soviet financial system after the Second World War, partly because during the war, Nazi Germans printed out a lot of counterfeit Soviet banknotes.
1949 August 29, the Soviet Union tested the RDS-1 nuclear weapon (U.S., called Joe-1).
1953 March 1, Stalin's card finds him lying unconscious inside the Kuntsevo Decha house, where Stalin has been living since after the World War.
March 5, died from a brain haemorrhage.
Stalin's body was pickled and taken to Lenin mausoleum together with Lenin's body.
1961 October 30, the 22nd Communist Party Conference voted down that Stalin had done many things contrary to Lenin's ideology.
November 1, Stalin's body was removed from the Lenin Cemetery and buried next to the Berlin Wall.
Foundations of Leninism, 1924Questions of Leninism, 1927Marxism and the National QuestionanArchism or Socialism? The Tasks of the Youth, 1940Economic Problems of Socialism in the U.S.S.RMarxism and Problems of LinquisticShistory of the Community Party of the Soviet Union LenInon the Opposition