Paris Commune
Paris Commune

Paris Commune

Paris Commune de Paris

The Socialist Party hailed the Paris Commune as the first communist revolution in Europe, Karl Marx hailed the events and battles of Parisians, extremist groups and armed forces in the Paris Commune as a “dictatorship of the proletariat.”

The Paris Commune is a form of self-government, which originated in Paris, led by extremists, neo-Jacobins, anarchists and socialists. The Paris Commune lasts 72 days between March 18, 1871 and May 28, 1871.

As a result of the France-Prussia War, July 19, 1870-28 January 1871, Otto von Bismarck attempted to unite the North German Federation with four southern German states: Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden. and Hesse-Darmstadt, who at the time was an independent state, but France did not agree because it would make Germany stronger.

On July 19, 1870, Napoleon III (Napoleon III) declared war on the Germans, but later France lost the war to the German side. The National Assembly, the French government at the time, declared it surrender, but Paris, which was besieged from the outside world by German forces, refused to give up. Announcement of setting up a government to govern itself


1848 Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte was elected as the first president of the 2nd French Republic (The Second French Empire).

In 1851, Louis-Napoleon made a revolution to seize his own government. After that, he received the support of the Council that founded Emperor Louis Napoleon, he was renamed Napoleon III, which ended the second public reception of France.

In 1864, the International Conference on Labour Problems, organized by leftist groups, socialists, anarchists and communists, was first held in London. The main mainstay of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Mikhail Bakunin, Louis Blanqui. Giusseppe Garibaldi (Giusseppe Garibaldi)

1868 Basel Congress

In 1869 (French election), the French general election showed a disunity of the people into two groups. By setting up the first round, 4.43 million voters supported representatives who supported Napoleonic III, while 3.35 million voters supported the Republic.

Meanwhile in Paris, that republican faction dominates the majority, with 234,000 supporters, while the emperor's support party has 77,000 voices.

Paris at the time had a population of 2 million, and 5 hundred thousand were workers in factories, where most workers would support the Republic. Paris at the time was like the embodiment of a revolutionary radical group, influenced by the concept of First International.

Leaders of extremist groups in Paris at the time, such as Louis Auguste Blanqui's group with thousands of members, many of whom had been prisoners.

1870 13 July, Ems Telegram

July 19, Franco-Prussian War, Emperor Napoleon III declared war on the North German Federation, led by Prussia.

2 September, Emperor Napoleon III of France defeated Prussia in the Battle of Sedan, and he was captured.

When news of the war's defeat came to Paris, the people of Paris raged and burst into the streets, Empress Eugenie, whose regent had finished fleeing Paris.

Extremists and those who are versed in the parliament have gathered to hold a National Assembly meeting in Hôtel de Ville and the French Third Republic, which is the third time France is governed by the Republic.

4 September, a meeting of the National Congress set up a new government called the Government of National Defense, where France's new government decided to continue its war with the Germans.

General Louis Jules Trochu has been named head of government Leon Gambetta, Interior Minister Jules Favre, Vice President, Foreign Minister Adolphe Le Flo, Defense Minister Leon Martin Fourichon and Colonial Ernest Picard, Finance Minister Jules Ferry, Government Secretary Jules Simon, Minister for Education, Religion and Art Adolphe Cremieus, Justice Minister Emmanuel Arago, Interior Minister Pierre Dorian. Deric Dorian, minister of public work, Alexander Glais-Bizoin, minister without Portfolio, Henry Rochefort, minister Eugene Pelletan, minister of transport, Alexander Glaus-Bizoin, minister of transport, Alexander Rochefort, minister Eugene Pelletan.

18-20 September, Foreign Minister Jules Fafre took a chance with Rothschild's Bismarck in Ferrières, suburban Paris, but couldn't agree on an end to the war because the Germans needed some territory and enormous money.

September 19, (Siege of Paris) Paris falls into the enclave of the Prussia army, led by King William I of Prussia, Crown Prince Albert of Saxony, the crown prince and Elmuth von Moltke, with a combined military force of about 250,000 officers.

While Paris has 50,000 regular military forces under the command of General Louis-Jules Trochu, while another 300,000 support forces, the National Guard (a civilian force) is an inexperienced and untrained force. Most of the National Guard are from labor, extremist and supportive groups. The republic system

Today, thousands of National Guard members under the leadership of Eugene Varlin march inside Paris calling for the election of the Parisian government. Demonstrators use the “Long Live the Commune” chanted during the march.

During October, General Louis-Jules Trachu tried to get the German breakout army out of many Paris, but was unsuccessful, and communications between Paris and other parts of France were cut apart by the Germans.

October 7, Interior Minister Leon Gambetta fled Paris, relying on the “Armand-Barbès” balloon in order to gather forces to resume the German enclave.

28 October, news arrived in Paris that 160,000 French soldiers trapped in the German enclave of Metz had dropped their weapons. On the same day, soldiers in Paris tried to break out from Paris again from Bourget, but failed and lost a lot of force.

October 31, the National Guard, led by Louis Auguste Blanqui, Felix Pyat, Louis Charles Delescluze, invaded the Hotel de Ville, called for General Louis-Jules Trachu to resign and armed the National Guard, and also called for government. Paris's self-governing body comes up

But after that, soldiers and National Guard, General Louis-Jules Trachu, came to Hotel de Ville and made the protesters who took Hotel de Ville to step back without any violence.

While France outside Paris, Adolphe Thiers, a member of the National Council, was sent by the government to take a line across Europe to voice international support for helping France against Germany, there was no nation standing by his hand, making Adofi Tier that talks with Germany to end the war were inevitable. could

November 1, Adofi Tier had a chance to meet Bismarck at the German Tours. However, talks were unsuccessful, and the Bismarck government decided to continue their war with Germany.

November 3, there's a vote in Paris on whether to support the Government of the National Defence, which 557996 voices support, while 62,638 oppose.

At the end of the year, it was cold and Paris began to face food shortages, fuel for warmth and medicine, the public needed to eat rats and animals in zoos for food.

At the beginning of 1871, the Germans were tired of impervious to Paris, and took hundreds of rounds of artillery into the city a day, causing General Louis-Jules Trachu's discontent to rise in Paris.

22 January, an extremist group in the National Guard, mostly Blanquists, gathered outside the Hotel de Ville, where there were guards inside. Protesters called for soldiers to be under civilian control and to hold elections within Paris immediately.

Moments afternoon, the situation was tense and there was a bipartisan clash with firearms, with six protestors being shot dead.

26 January, the French Government of National Defense in Bordeaux agreed to a deal to end the war with the Germans, with a special deal for Paris that the Germans would have to invade Paris, and French troops would drop their weapons and pay 200 million francs of war reform.

February 8, (French legislative election) Elected the new National Assembly of France. It appears that the King's Supporters were also elected to a majority, with a total of 645 seats and 396 seats belonging to the ruling party, and 222 seats belong to the leftist group, Support the Republic

February 17, Adofi Tier was elected by the council to head the national government.

February 24, France signed an agreement ending the war with the Germans.

March 10, the French government has resumed the use of Versailles (Versailles) in government administration.

March 17, Adofi Tier ordered the disarming of the National Guard in Paris and sent soldiers in to seize artillery of the Montmartre looking National Guard.

March 18, the National Guard in Paris killed two French captains, General Claude Lecomte and General Jacques Leon Clement-Thomas, who led troops to disarm.

The National Guard took over the Hotel de Velle and denied the French government. This is the day of Paris commune.

The group of terrorists in the Paris Community is made up of several groups. The most active group is Blanquists, an armed extremist group that supports Louis Auguste Blanquie, Jacobin Group, International Workers Association.

The National Guard of Paris Commune has 38 central committees.

March 26, the Paris Commune Committee organized its own election within Paris, with 92 selected members coming from the bloc.

which they formed the government of the Paris Commune.

Gustave Cluseret, Delegate of the Wate, Delegate to Justice, Augustus Viard, Delegate to Justice, Delegate to Subsistences, Edouare Viallant, Representative for Education. (delegate to Education) Raoul Rigault, secretary of general security, Leo Frankel, delegate for labour, industry and trade, Jules Andrieu, oversees transportation.

The Paris Community government has issued several laws such as abolishing religious subsidies, abolishing conscription, adopting the French Revolutionary Calendar system, setting labor hours no more than 10 hours a day, banning bread at night, banning newspapers of government support.

March 28, Red Flag (Drapeau rouge) is sparkled as a symbol

April 3, the National Guard was sent to attack Versailles, the government's location.

April 4, the Paris Community, also known as the Communards, who took 47 hostages, killed all of the hostages by shooting. One of them was Archbishop Georges Darbboy, after the French government rejected calls for the release of Louis Auguste Bangui, who was taken into custody.

May 16, Paris Commune destroyed the Vendôme Column, a monumental monument celebrating the victory of Napoleon I, who defeated Russia and Austria. The idea of destroying the monument came from Gustave Courbet, a painter of the Paris Commune.

21-28 May, (La semaine saglante, The Bloody Week) The French government has sent an army to suppress the Paris Commune, which has killed over 20,000 of the Paris Commune, while 750 soldiers of the French government have died.

In addition to that, the Tuileries palace, the Louvre library running the Palais de Justice, the Palais-Royal palace, the Palais d'Orsay, was burned during the battle between the two factions.

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