The Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department (The Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department) of Gwantong Army (Kwantung Army,), known as Manchurian Unit 731 (Manchurian Unit No.731), or abbreviated as Unit 731 (Unit 731).
This 731 unit was set in 1935 in the village of Pingfang, a suburb of Harbin, in Manchukuo, northeastern China, which was at the time under the possession of Jippon.
The function of Unit 731 is not to prevent epidemics and filter water like the name used in the face, but it is actually an agency to research biological weapons for the Imperial Japanese Army. The mission was inherited from the former Zhongma Fortress camp, which is also located in Habin. Because the prisoners used in the experiment were able to climb away from the prison, and information leaked to the public, Japan had to build a new, more stable place. The experiment at the Jongma camp was under the command of General Shiro Ishii (i), a military physician and a microbiologist. By destroying the Zhong Ma Lae camp, he was still responsible for Unit 731.
In 1925, Japan endorsed the Geneva Convention, which prohibits the use of biological avowels and chemical weapons in warfare.
1931, September 18, (Manchuria Incident), the bombing of the railway tracks in Manchuria between Wen-kuan-tun station and Mukden station was officially a sign of the Chinese invasion of Japan. After this three days, Japan deployed troops from Korea to invade China, and Japan took about three months to capture Manchuria from China.
After capturing Manchukuo, Japan announced a new country called Manchukuo. Henry Pu Yi, a former emperor of China since 1912, was a puppet in the Manjukawa administration.
Around the same time as Manjugawa was set up, Japanese General Shiro Ishii created a biological laboratory inside a military hospital in Tokyo.
In 1932, General Shiro Ishii requested to move from Japan to Manjugawa. He was appointed by Defense Minister Sadao Araki to be responsible for the Army Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory, AERPL, for which General Shiro Ishii set up a secret research unit. It is called the Tōgō Unit for chemical and biological weapons research.
After Japan invaded China and seized Manchuria in the east, General Shiro Ishii's Tako unit set up a secret research center at Zhongma Camp, located in the village of Beiyinhe, about a hundred kilometers south of Habin City's central residence, at which time the village was populated. About 300 houses, but the Chinese houses were bombed and burned down by Japanese soldiers in order to build a secret research facility.
The Jongma camp is surrounded by three metre high panels, and the east wall is equipped with electric barbed wire and a pool. Inside, there are hundreds of chambers, barracks, prisoner cells, cremation and bomb depots. Construction was completed. Prisoners were killed to hide secrets.
At the research center in Zhongma Camp, thousands of prisoners were taken as victims of the experiment, most of them were Chinese against Japanese government. These prisoners are captured by Japanese military police called Kenpeitai,). Before being researched by various methods such as injecting bacteria, pathogens into the body, surgery, amputation of limbs to study bowel function, digestive system and blood flow. Some women are also raped to study the transmission of pathogens to infants.
General Shiro Ishii's research was partly supported by Lieutenant Colonel Chikaiko Koizumi, a former military officer in World War I. He was impressed by the fact that the Germans used chlorine gas in battle, which World War 1 was the first time chemical weapons were used in warfare.
In August 1934, during the spring, an inmate named Lee (Li) attacked a guard and stole a key. He helped forty other fellow prisoners, who climbed the fence and broke the wall's electrical fence and escaped.
After this incident, General Shiro Ishii ordered the destruction of the Jongma camp to conceal the secrets of Japanese research.
One of the escapes is Ziyang Wang.
In 1936, Unit 731 was reestablished at Ping Fang Village to continue its mission to research biological and chemical weapons from the Jongma Camp. By Emperor Hirohito's Royal Highness, the 731 unit was incorporated into a unit of the Kwandong Army.
In addition to Unit 731, there are two other units that are set up:
1. Unit 100 (Unit 100, Kwantung Army Military Horse Epidemic Prevention Workshop) responsible for biowapons research by Chopa
2. Unit 516 (Unit 516, Kwantung Army Technical Testing Department) responsible for chemical weapons research
This 731 unit has about 300 researchers, doctors and scientists, and nearly four thousand others. They call their own agency Holzklotz in German, meaning “wood” because researchers call the prisoners tested as log, or a manju, or a long-tailed monkey.
Unit 731 is a source of biological weapons testing and manufacturing such as bubonic plage, thphold, paratyphoid, cholera, smallpox, botulism, butolism, anthrax, syphilis.). These germs, when cultivated, are put into a carrier like ticks or fleas. and then scatter enemy communities using low-altitude aircraft — Chinese and Russian — or possibly carry germs into a bomb made of ceramics, and then drop them into the community.
In 1937 July, Japan invaded China for the second time (Second Sino-Japanese War), the war continued until Japan lost in World War II in 1945. During this world war, Japan created several biowapons and chemical centers such as Unit 1855 in embroidery, Unit Ei 1644 in Nanking, in 1939, Unit 8604 in Guangzhou, Unit 9420 in Guangzhou
During the Second World War, Japan used multiple biological weapons in many Chinese cities such as Quzhou, Ningbo and Changde.
In 1945, Japan gave up in the Second World War, the entire biowapons research center was closed. Unit 731, one of which General Shiro Ishii ordered the destruction of all documents before the Soviet Red Army arrived in August.
After the war, America, who ruled Japan in the post-war period, neglected to take the test of Japanese war crimes and the use of biological weapons. It is possible that the United States had a secret program similar to Operation Pepeaclip performed by German Nazi scientists by taking them to work for the U.S.
At the time, the U.S. sent Lieutenant Colonel Murray Sanders, a U.S. Army biowapons expert, to Japan's biowapons research probe, and he sent a report to General Ducras McArthur, Gen. Douglas MacArthur), whose MacArthur seems to be intentionally letting those involved in these crimes get out of their guilt without serious investigation.
In 1949, the ruling of the Khabarovsk War Crimes Trials, the Soviet Union sentenced war criminals from the Second World War who were members of the Kwandong Army who contributed to the production of chemical and biological weapons. In this judgment, 12 of the 40 people prosecuted by the Guandong Army were convicted of the offense. He was a member of Unit 731, which involved a bio-bombing that contained a punch into Changde.
Gen. Otoso Yamada (Gen. Otozo Yamada), commander of the Guandong Army, jailed 25 years Lieutenant General Kachitsuka Ryoji (Lt. Gen. Chief Medical Officer Kajitsuka Ryuji, jailed for 25 years Lieutenant General Takahashi Takaatsy, jailed for 25 years, Gen. Kawashima Kiyoshi, head of Unit 731, Major General Sato Shunji (Maj.Gen Sato Shunji), head of the 5th Army Medical Unit, jailed for 20 years. Nishi Toshihide (Lt.Col. Nishi Toshihide ), an officer in Unit 731, jailed for 20 years, Lieutenant Karasawa Tomio (Maj. Karasawa Tomio), an officer in Unit 731, jailed for 18 years, Corporal Mitomo Kasao (Sgt. Mitomo Kazuo, an officer in Unit 100, jailed for 15 years, Lieutenant Onoue Masao (Maj. Onoue Masao) officer in Unit 731, imprisonment for 12 years, Lieutenant Hirazakura Zensaku (Lt. Hirazakura Zensaku), officer in Unit 100, prison for 10 years Karushima Yuji, officer in Unit 731., imprisonment for 3 years Corporal Kikuchi Norimitsu ( Cpl.Kikuchi Norimitsu). Officials in Unit 731, jailed for 2 years
1950, the Soviet Union published the Khabarovsky case in English as Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons.
The 2001 documentary Japanses Devils (日本子) by Minoru Matsui interviewed 14 members of Unit 731.
2018 Japan National Archives Reveal List of 3,607 Members of Unit 731